Absolute risk difference – the change in the risk of an outcome of a given treatment or activity in relation to a comparison treatment or activity
Antipyretic – a drug used to prevent or reduce fever
Autochthonous – Formed or originating in the place where found
Case-control study – two groups with different outcomes (often disease and no disease) are identified and compared to identify factors that may contribute to the outcomes
Clinical Knowledge Summary – “provides primary care practitioners with a readily accessible summary of the current evidence base and practical guidance on best practice in respect of over 330 common and/or significant primary care presentations”
Cluster-randomised ring – A cluster is a group of people, a ring is the people who surround an index case, randomisation means they were allocated by chance.
ELISA – enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a common laboratory technique to measure the concentration of antibodies or antigens
Epidemiology – the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations. The cornerstone of public health, shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare.
Genus / Genera – a taxonomic classification above species
IFA – indirect fluorescent antibody test, a laboratory technique to measure the concentration of antibodies
Invasive group A streptococcus infection – includes cellulitis, STSS and necrotizing fasciitis
Lancashire – a strange and beautiful land…
Necrotizing soft tissue infection – a rare but very severe type of bacterial infection. It can destroy the muscles, skin, and underlying tissue. The word “necrotizing” refers to something that causes body tissue to die.
NICE – The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence – https://www.nice.org.uk/
Open-label – the researcher and the participant in the trial know what medication the patient is receiving
P= – In statistics, the p-value is a function used for testing a statistical hypothesis. Before the test is performed, a threshold value is chosen, called the significance level of the test, traditionally 5% (p = 0.05). p = 0.05 means that 5% of the time, this result will occur by chance, and 95% of the time this result will be ‘real’. p ≤ 0.05 indicates a significant result. p > 0.05 indicates a non-significant result, i.e.: there is a greater than 5% chance that this result happened by chance.
R0 – the basic reproduction number, the number of cases one case generates, on average, over the course of its infectious period, in an otherwise uninfected population
Relative risk – the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group.
Reservoir – Any person, animal, plant, soil or substance in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies, typically harbors the infectious agent without injury to itself and serves as a source from which other individuals can be infected
Review – an article that summarizes the current state of understanding on a topic. A review article re-presents previously published material, rather than reporting new facts or analysis. Not the same as a systematic review.
rVSV-ZEBOV – recombinant, made in the vesicular stomatitis virus, and made from the Zaire Ebola Virus
Septicaemia – a term used to describe blood poisoning. It is an infection caused by large amounts of bacteria entering the bloodstream. It is a potentially life-threatening infection that affects thousands of patients every year.
Sequelae – an additional condition as a consequence of the first
Systematic Review – a literature review that systematically collects and critically analyses multiple research studies or papers.
Vector – Any organism that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism.