Terminology

Absolute risk difference –  the change in the risk of an outcome of a given treatment or activity in relation to a comparison treatment or activity

Antipyretic – a drug used to prevent or reduce fever

Autochthonous – Formed or originating in the place where found

Case-control study – two groups with different outcomes (often disease and no disease) are identified and compared to identify factors that may contribute to the outcomes

Clinical Knowledge Summary – “provides primary care practitioners with a readily accessible summary of the current evidence base and practical guidance on best practice in respect of over 330 common and/or significant primary care presentations”

Cluster-randomised ring – A cluster is a group of people, a ring is the people who surround an index case, randomisation means they were allocated by chance.

ELISA – enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a common laboratory technique to measure the concentration of antibodies or antigens

Epidemiology – the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations. The cornerstone of public health, shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare.

Genus / Genera – a taxonomic classification above species

IFA – indirect fluorescent antibody test, a laboratory technique to measure the concentration of antibodies

Invasive group A streptococcus infection – includes cellulitis, STSS and necrotizing fasciitis

Lancashire – a strange and beautiful land…

Necrotizing soft tissue infection – a rare but very severe type of bacterial infection. It can destroy the muscles, skin, and underlying tissue. The word “necrotizing” refers to something that causes body tissue to die.

NICE – The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence – https://www.nice.org.uk/

Open-label – the researcher and the participant in the trial know what medication the patient is receiving

P= – In statistics, the p-value is a function used for testing a statistical hypothesis. Before the test is performed, a threshold value is chosen, called the significance level of the test, traditionally 5% (p = 0.05). p = 0.05 means that 5% of the time, this result will occur by chance, and 95% of the time this result will be ‘real’. p ≤ 0.05 indicates a significant result. p > 0.05 indicates a non-significant result, i.e.: there is a greater than 5% chance that this result happened by chance.

R0 – the basic reproduction number, the number of cases one case generates, on average, over the course of its infectious period, in an otherwise uninfected population

Relative risk – the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group.

Reservoir Any person, animal, plant, soil or substance in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies, typically harbors the infectious agent without injury to itself and serves as a source from which other individuals can be infected

Review – an article that summarizes the current state of understanding on a topic. A review article re-presents previously published material, rather than reporting new facts or analysis. Not the same as a systematic review.

rVSV-ZEBOVrecombinant, made in the vesicular stomatitis virus, and made from the Zaire Ebola Virus

Septicaemia – a term used to describe blood poisoning. It is an infection caused by large amounts of bacteria entering the bloodstream. It is a potentially life-threatening infection that affects thousands of patients every year.

Sequelae – an additional condition as a consequence of the first

Systematic Review – a literature review that systematically collects and critically analyses multiple research studies or papers.

Vector – Any organism that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism.

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